Thursday 30 September 2010

MC History: 40 Years-40 Quotes (1970s)

The 1970s
We embark on our sojourn through member care history with 10 quotes from the 1970s. These selections help us get a better sense of where we have come from and reflect the shifts that were happening in this decade in mission (e.g., the emerging influence of mental health practitioners and others with first-hand experience in mission--all talking much more openly about the challenges of mission life). Many of the writings from the 1970’s--some with more of an enduring impact than others--began to address core parts of mission life, including preparation, evaluation, field adjustment, children’s issues, women's roles, and re-entry.
1970: Joseph Stringham
Likely Causes of Emotional Difficulties Among Missionaries
Evangelical Missions Quarterly, Volume 7, (pp. 193-203)
Some of the factors that increase the likelihood of emotional difficulties among missionaries may be divided into two broad categories, internal and external. Internal factors are often things that make up the individual's personality; external factors are things in the environment. The latter are often given as causes for the missionary seeking psychiatric help. As a rule, they are more appropriately called the precipitating factors. Internal factors are often things that make up the individual’s personality [resentments, marital, guilt, early life trauma/deprivation, motivation]; external factors are things in the environment [culture shock, language, overwhelming work, children/school, medical care, etc.] (p. 193)

1971: Waldron Scott

Teams and Teamwork
Evangelical Missions Quarterly, Volume 7, (pp. 111-121)
The concept of a team, as we are identifying it, seems to include at least five elements: (1) a common objective, (2), an accepted leader, (3) agreement on method and activities, (4) a strong sense of love and loyalty among the members, and (5) a certain division of labor within the group....The capacity [of a team leader] for appreciating the gifts and abilities of team members, and the commitment to helping them develop their own abilities, gifts, and personalities, seems to be a most important of the team leader's chief jobs is to maintain a high level of morale among the individual team members.(pp. 112, 115)

1972: Charles Piepgrass
A Suggested Program for Field Orientation of First Termers
Evangelical Missions Quarterly, Volume 8, (pp. 93-97)
(provides a checklist of items to consider to help the transition to a field setting including arrival, initiation for the first month, identification with the people, language learning, local area and ministry orientation)

1973: Bruce Narramore
Perspectives on the Integration of Psychology and Theology
Journal of Psychology and Theology, Volume 1, (pp. 3-19)
The evangelical church has a great opportunity to combine the special revelation of God's Word with the general revelation studied by the psychological sciences and professions. The end result of this integration can be a broader (and deeper) view of human life. Historically we have failed to have sufficient dialogue and interaction. Currently we are in a position to gather relevant objective data, seek well-constructed theoretical views, and find improved techniques for applying our biblical and psychological data. To do this we need a group of committed professional people who can mix a personal piety with a commitment to the authority of the Word of God and to high quality professional endeavours. (p. 18)

1973: Ken Williams (we could not resist including two key entries for 1973!)
Characteristics of the More Successful/Less Successful Missionaries
Dissertation, United States International University
The problem of the study was whether there were identifiable characteristics which differentiate more successful missionaries from those who are judged less successful. ….MSS were generally younger and had fewer children...MSS had more extracurricular leadership experience in college; they had higher college GPAs, linguistic course GPAs, an Bible examination GPAs. A higher percentage of LSS had reported themselves as nervous, depressed, anxious, and having alternating moods. MSS had higher overall reference ratings, and had fewer negative characteristics noted in ratings. Ratings made I linguistic courses indicated that MSS were rated excellent more often in health, drive, maturity, and linguistic ability. Staff members observed more negative interpersonal, motivational, and psychological characteristics of LSS…In the Jungle Camp program staff members rated MSS higher in compatibility as partners. MSS received more excellent ratings in self-mastery, team spirit, dynamism, and morale. LSS received more below average ratings in self-mastery, morale, adaptability, pioneering aptitude, social integration, an family/partner relations. (pp. 1, 3; Abstract)

1974: Sally Folger Dye
Decreasing Fatigue and Illness in Field Work
Missiology: An International Review, Volume 2, (pp. 79-109)
Note-included in Helping Missionaries Grow (1988)
Fatigue and illness often hinder the productive field-work of missionaries, linguists, anthropologists, government workers, and others who attempt to live in foreign cultures. Many well-trained workers are forced to leave their fields before achieving their goals. They often feel a deep sense of frustration and a vague sense of guilt for years afterwards. This article attempts to bring research and experience together to create a fresh understanding of common human reactions in a cross-cultural environment. It then suggests specific ways for recognizing and controlling these reactions to prevent fatigue and physical as well as emotional illness. (p. 79) Note; Also reprinted in Helping Missionaries Grow (1988).

1975: Donald Hesselgrave
The Missionary of Tomorrow: Identity Crisis Extraordinary
Missiology, Volume 3, (pp. 225-239)

1976: Stanley Lindquist
Twenty to Fifty Percent Fail to Make It-Why?
Evangelical Missions Quarterly, Volume 13, (pp. 141-148)
My involvement in missions is somewhat indirect in that I work with missionaries, but I am no on the field as such. In fact, someone once described this part of our foundation program as "being missionaries to the missionaries."…The Link Care Foundation was not established nor does it serve to screen people out of missionary assignments or to tell the mission board which persons should or should not be allowed to go to the field. Rather, we confront the individual with his strengths and weaknesses. We are also able to give him an opportunity to understand what kinds of difficulties he might encounter on the field and the ways such problems can be resolved. Then the candidate and the board can decide if he or she is an acceptable candidate for service. (pp. 141, 148)

1977: Donald Larson
Missionary Preparation: Confronting the Presuppositional Barrier
Missiology, Volume 5, (pp. 73-82)
Missionaries do not always join the communities in which they reside and in which they seek to minister. Too often, the missionary lives at the margin of the community’s center of activity, reducing [his/her] effectiveness considerably. Many such failures arise because the missionary is simply not ready to identify closely with [the] host community. This article examines [the] reluctance to identify and emphasizes the importance of dealing with this in…preparation. (p. 73).

1978: Virgil Olson
Five Fundamentals in Evaluating Missionaries
Evangelical Missions Quarterly, Volume 14, (pp. 163-167)
Mission administrators need to guard against a we-they polarization attitude when it comes to management programs in missions, including evaluation procedures. We are in this evaluation business together, administrators and missionaries. On the basis of this mutuality of a need for evaluation, let me list a few principles that express the fundamental aspects of a philosophy of evaluation of missionaries. [stewardship of people/resources, excellence in working on objectives, reflection on weakness and progress, community input, stimulus for growth counselling] (p. 163)

1979: Michael Sullivan
Career Counseling for Single Women
Evangelical Missions Quarterly, Volume 15, (pp. 29-34)
The background of women candidates is changing rapidly, and they will increasingly expect to be regarded as equals, and respected for their personhood, gifts and calling. (p. 30)….I believe that candid, thorough, systematic career oriented counseling can help dispel vagueness and aid in developing healthy careers for single women [in missions]. (p. 33)
What an amazing group of folks
who helped shape what was to become the member care field.

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